Gregor Mendel’s discovery of hereditary traits; Mendel’s paper is published: units of inheritance in pairs; dominance and recessiveness; equal segregation; independent assortment. These ideas are not recognized for 34 years.
DNA is identified by Friedrich Miescher as an acidic substance found in cell nuclei. The significance of DNA is not appreciated for the next 70 years.
Sir Archibald Garrod made the first connection between genetic inheritance and susceptibility to a disease
The word "genetics" is coined by William Bateson.
In DNA, there are equal amounts of A and T, and equal amounts of C and G, as shown by Erwin Chargaff. However, the A+T to C+G ratio can differ between organisms.
DNA is the molecule that mediates heredity, as shown in bacteriophage labeling experiments by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase. This confirmation of the 1944 results really convinced everyone.
DNA is in the shape of a double helix with antiparallel nucleotide chains and specific base pairing. This was deduced by Watson and Crick, who used Rosalind Franklin’s data provided by Maurice Wilkins.
The first discovery of a genetic basis for selective toxicity was made – for the antimalarial drug primaquine.
The genetic code is cracked by a number of researchers (including Nirenberg, Matthaei, Leder, and Khorana) using RNA homopolymer and heteropolymer experiments as well as tRNA labeling experiments.
Recombinant DNA is first constructed by Cohen and Boyer.
DNA sequencing technology is developed by Fred Sanger.
The discovery of cytochrome P450 metabolic enzymes and their role in chemically altering drugs so they can be eliminated from the bloodstream led to the realization that variation in these enzymes can have a significant influence on the effective dose of a drug.
PCR is developed by Kary Mullis.
The Human Genome Project officially launches, with the goals of identifying all human genes and sequencing the 3 billion bases of a composite human genome
EGFR TKI class discovered
Affymetrix introduces the first array an HIV genotyping GeneChip
Automated sequencing technology and advanced computing power allows genome projects to accelerate.
The yeast genome is complete.
The first cloning of a mammal (Dolly the sheep) is performed by Ian Wilmut and colleagues, from the Roslin institute in Scotland.
DNA microarrays are invented by Pat Brown and colleagues.
Trastuzumab receives FDA approval for metastatic breast cancer in tumors for overexpressing HER2.
First companion diagnostic; The first test to be associated with a drug debuted in 1998. Diagnostic company Dako launched Hercep-Test, an immunohistochemistry assay used to identify patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, when it was discovered that patients with HER2 amplification responded better to Genentech’s breast cancer therapy, Herceptin.
The Drosophila genome is completed. The Arabidopsis genome is completed. The human genome is reported to be completed.
The sequence of the human genome is released, and the "post-genomic era" officially begins.
After more than a decade of research, the Human Genome Project was completed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health.
EGFR TKIs become an accepted therapeutic option in advanced non small cell lung cancer
Targeted therapies approved in colorectal cancer (KRAS M+) and non small cell lung cancer
Selzentry® (maraviroc), a personalized medicine developed by Pfizer and targeted for the treatment of a specific strain of HIV known as "CCR5-tropic", is approved. Through a partnership with a diagnostic company, Pfizer was able to develop an HIV drug targeted to a specific group of patients, thus launching the first new class of HIV medications in over a decade
The FDA updated the label for Coumadin to recommend that a patient’s genetic makeup be considered when deciding what dose to administer.
The U.S. senate discusses incorporating personalized medicine into the national budget.
Zelboraf, a prescription personalized medicine from Genentech, is made available for people with the skin cancer melanoma with a certain mutation in the BRAF gene.
Xalkori, a prescription medicine from Pfizer used to treat non-small cell lung cancer caused by a defect in a gene called ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) is released.
The latest Encode Project findings released in September, providing further insight into genes and the Human Genome.