Personalized Medicine Timeline

1866

Gregor Mendel’s discovery of hereditary traits; Mendel’s paper is published: units of inheritance in pairs; dominance and recessiveness; equal segregation; independent assortment. These ideas are not recognized for 34 years.

1869

DNA is identified by Friedrich Miescher as an acidic substance found in cell nuclei. The significance of DNA is not appreciated for the next 70 years.

1902

Sir Archibald Garrod made the first connection between genetic inheritance and susceptibility to a disease

1905

The word "genetics" is coined by William Bateson.

1950

In DNA, there are equal amounts of A and T, and equal amounts of C and G, as shown by Erwin Chargaff. However, the A+T to C+G ratio can differ between organisms.

1952

DNA is the molecule that mediates heredity, as shown in bacteriophage labeling experiments by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase. This confirmation of the 1944 results really convinced everyone.

1953

DNA is in the shape of a double helix with antiparallel nucleotide chains and specific base pairing. This was deduced by Watson and Crick, who used Rosalind Franklin’s data provided by Maurice Wilkins.

1956

The first discovery of a genetic basis for selective toxicity was made – for the antimalarial drug primaquine.

1966

The genetic code is cracked by a number of researchers (including Nirenberg, Matthaei, Leder, and Khorana) using RNA homopolymer and heteropolymer experiments as well as tRNA labeling experiments.

1973

Recombinant DNA is first constructed by Cohen and Boyer.

1977

DNA sequencing technology is developed by Fred Sanger.

1977

The discovery of cytochrome P450 metabolic enzymes and their role in chemically altering drugs so they can be eliminated from the bloodstream led to the realization that variation in these enzymes can have a significant influence on the effective dose of a drug.

1986

PCR is developed by Kary Mullis.

1990

The Human Genome Project officially launches, with the goals of identifying all human genes and sequencing the 3 billion bases of a composite human genome

1994

EGFR TKI class discovered

1994

Affymetrix introduces the first array an HIV genotyping GeneChip

1995

Automated sequencing technology and advanced computing power allows genome projects to accelerate.

1996

The yeast genome is complete.

1996

The first cloning of a mammal (Dolly the sheep) is performed by Ian Wilmut and colleagues, from the Roslin institute in Scotland.

1998

DNA microarrays are invented by Pat Brown and colleagues.

1998

Trastuzumab receives FDA approval for metastatic breast cancer in tumors for overexpressing HER2.

1998

First companion diagnostic; The first test to be associated with a drug debuted in 1998. Diagnostic company Dako launched Hercep-Test, an immunohistochemistry assay used to identify patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, when it was discovered that patients with HER2 amplification responded better to Genentech’s breast cancer therapy, Herceptin.

2000

The Drosophila genome is completed. The Arabidopsis genome is completed. The human genome is reported to be completed.

2001

The sequence of the human genome is released, and the "post-genomic era" officially begins.

2003

After more than a decade of research, the Human Genome Project was completed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health.

2004

EGFR TKIs become an accepted therapeutic option in advanced non small cell lung cancer

2004

Targeted therapies approved in colorectal cancer (KRAS M+) and non small cell lung cancer

2007

Selzentry® (maraviroc), a personalized medicine developed by Pfizer and targeted for the treatment of a specific strain of HIV known as "CCR5-tropic", is approved. Through a partnership with a diagnostic company, Pfizer was able to develop an HIV drug targeted to a specific group of patients, thus launching the first new class of HIV medications in over a decade

2007

The FDA updated the label for Coumadin to recommend that a patient’s genetic makeup be considered when deciding what dose to administer.

2009

The U.S. senate discusses incorporating personalized medicine into the national budget.

2011

Zelboraf, a prescription personalized medicine from Genentech, is made available for people with the skin cancer melanoma with a certain mutation in the BRAF gene.

2012

Xalkori, a prescription medicine from Pfizer used to treat non-small cell lung cancer caused by a defect in a gene called ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) is released.

2012

The latest Encode Project findings released in September, providing further insight into genes and the Human Genome.

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